Taxonomy and Methodology

Our continuous research and market-sizing reports follow a rigorous methodology under which we map the entire enterprise software market by functional area, vertical industry as well as deployment method. Additionally, we break down discrete markets like Human Capital Management into more descriptive segments in order to help buyers explore the sum as well as its moving parts. What follows is the taxonomy that we keep updating on a regular basis by constantly factoring in innovative technologies and new business models.


In our vendor database, there are more than 3,000 vendors that offer enterprise applications for different functions and verticals. Data used in research reports are derived from publicly available documents, continuous surveys of applications vendors, customers, resellers, Independent Software Vendors, systems integrators and other verifiable sources.

Each year we conduct an annual survey that covers the latest financial results of these 3,000+ vendors by product, function, vertical, and country.

Then we create a company model for each of them to determine their revenues as the basis of their profiles. Before we publish these profiles, each of these vendors receives a draft so that they can offer us their input, feedback and revenue guidance.

SCORES Methodology Analysis
SCORES Methodology Analysis

Their profiles cover more than 100 different fields of data including the following components:

  • Years in business
  • Historical revenues on an annual and/or quarterly basis
  • Revenue splits by functional markets, verticals, regions, countries, revenue types, channel(direct vs indirect) and company size
  • Number of On-premise and Cloud customers and subscribers
  • General pricing of its offerings from the vendor and its peer group
  • Estimates on recurring revenues from on-premise implementations, maintenance fees, Cloud subscriptions, hybrid Cloud, hosting, managed services, and custom development
  • Use of Cloud platform infrastructure providers
  • Customer adoptions of these enterprise applications based on our database of 100,000+ enterprise customers
  • Channel sales through resellers, hosting partners, OEMs, other business partners
  • Publicly-available information from third-party sources such as newspapers, blogs, social media, etc.
  • Published materials from Apps Run The World

Finally, vendor shares and market forecast results are based on a combination of existing databases as well as demand side and supply side research conducted throughout the year with validation from vendors, customers, channel partners and documentations such as earnings releases and 10Q and 10K filings, vertical industry studies, regional and country-level statistics from public and private institutions(i.e. colleges, universities, government agencies and trade associations).

Exhibit 1 – Worldwide Enterprise Software Market 2016-2021 Forecast, $B
Exhibit 2 – Enterprise IT Product Market Split By Cloud-based Offerings (PaaS, IaaS, SaaS) and Non Cloud-Based Products, 2016 Revenues and 2017-2021 Forecast, $M
Exhibit 3 – Taxonomy for Cloud-Based Enterprise IT
Exhibit 4 – Definition of PaaS, IaaS, and SaaS
Exhibit 5 – 2016 Market Shares of Top 10 Enterprise Software Market
Exhibit 6a – Definition of Enterprise Applications Components By Function
Exhibit 6b – Definition of Enterprise Applications Components By Vertical Industry
Exhibit 7 – Schematic View of Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP) Applications Market and Its Key Functions
Exhibit 8 – Definition of Human Capital Management (HCM) Applications

Exhibit 1 – Worldwide Enterprise Applications Market 2016-2021 Forecast, $B

Worldwide Enterprise Applications Market 2016-2021 Forecast, $B
Year20162021CAGR, %
Cloud Applications57868.6%
Non Cloud Applications 148134-2%
Enterprise Applications cover 16 functional areas from analytics to treasury and risk management, in addition to those designed for 21 verticals from aerospace to utilities.
Cloud Applications cover those that are primarily delivered via public Cloud. Non-Cloud Applications are those that are typically installed behind the corporate firewall.
Source: Apps Run The World, December 2017

Exhibit 2 – Enterprise IT Product Market Split By Cloud-based Offerings (PaaS, IaaS, SaaS) and Non Cloud-Based Products, 2016 Revenues and 2017-2021 Forecast, $M:

Enterprise IT Product Category2016201720182019202020212017-2021 CAGR, %
Other Enterprise IT Products211691201479189045177867168034158321-5.6
Total Enterprise IT321000320500319000318000317000317500-0.2

Source: Apps Run The World, August 2017

Exhibit 3 – Taxonomy for Cloud-Based Enterprise IT

Cloud-Based Enterprise IT Market 2021 and Beyond
Cloud-Based Enterprise IT Market 2021 and Beyond

Exhibit 4 – Definition of PaaS, IaaS, and SaaS

PaaS – Platform As A Service covers a range of development tools like Java and Heroku, Integration products like Middleware for application deployment and integration, Data Management products like Databases, ETL, Data Warehousing tools, as well as System Software for change and configuration management. All of the above need to be delivered via Cloud services with hosting, virtual machine, container and private, hybrid and public Cloud subscriptions.

IaaS – Infrastructure As A Service covers a range of Cloud services that are designed for anyone needing to outsource hosting, compute, container, bare metal server for input and output workload, virtualization, storage, backup and recovery, networking, load balancing tasks and other infrastructure services to a third-party provider.

Security – Off-the-shelf security software delivered via the Cloud is not included in our Cloud Computing taxonomy as IaaS and PaaS service providers are embedding security into their subscription services, making it difficult to isolate recurring revenues for security from such bundling arrangements. Customers now come to expect security as standard Cloud Computing services, similar to what commercial landlords are bundling physical security, building upkeep and maintenance into leases for their tenants. Standalone Cloud-based Security products are being rolled into Other Enterprise IT Products.

SaaS – Software As A Service covers a range of enterprise applications delivered via the Cloud for business functions and processes such as Order to Cash, Hire to Retire as well as industry-specific capabilities like Jail Management Software, Electronic Health Records as well as other apps for 21 verticals in our taxonomy.

Exhibit 5 – 2016 Market Shares of Top 10 Enterprise Software Market

2016 Market Shares of Top 10 Enterprise Software Market, %
2016 Market Shares of Top 10 Enterprise Software Market, %

Exhibit 6a – Definition of Enterprise Applications Components By Function

Enterprise applications are derived from more than three dozen functional markets and vertical industries by automating specific and discrete business processes and functions generally used by a customer either within an enterprise or across multiple divisions of a vertical industry.

The associated product revenues(license, maintenance and subscription) form the basis of enterprise applications market sizing. Because of their ease of use and deployment via the Cloud, the enterprise applications market is expected to remain one of the fastest-growing segments of the enterprise software space(which includes infrastructure, systems management, integration, and other packaged products like databases).

Primary MarketSecondary MarketsDescription
Enterprise applicationsAnalytics and BIAnalytics applications cover business intelligence functions sold as a standalone application package for decision support or embedded in an integrated solution for functions such as revenue performance or for specific verticals such as healthcare performance management.
CollaborationCollaboration applications include Cloud tools for Web conferencing, team collaboration, social business platform, event management, eSignature, and sharing of online community resources. Collaboration applications also include conventional tools for email, group calendaring, scheduling and threaded discussion.

Knowledge transfer plays a key role in the Collaboration application market especially when it comes to adding value to Electronic Performance Support Systems(EPSS), which enable companies to better prepare and train employees and users with online guides in order to help them complete specific tasks and business processes. Next-generation EPSS can fill the gaps of the team and unstructured collaboration, making intranets, project management, and other knowledge management tools more accessible.

Next-gen EPSS will have the biggest impact on customer-facing systems like Salesforce Automation by making collaborative selling actionable as account intelligence, customer insights and buying preferences can be easily identified, shared and prioritized. The same applies to next-gen EPSS being adapted to deliver best-in-class customer service and support with precision, accuracy and user satisfaction.

Content ManagementContent management applications include Web content management, document management, authoring tools, digital rights management, and search and portal functions that can be integrated into a business process via the Cloud.
Customer Relationship ManagementCustomer Relationship Management includes applications for sales force automation, marketing automation, customer service and support management such as email automation. Social Media Management, Customer Experience Management, Activity and Participant Management are among some of the newly available CRM applications available via Cloud delivery.
eCommerceeCommerce applications include those designed for shopping cart automation, order management, inventory management, Web-based point of sale, multi-channel retailing, procurement, sourcing, and supplier relationship management.
Enterprise Performance ManagementEnterprise Performance Management applications are designed for a range of budgeting, forecasting and planning business processes that span multiple functional areas from finance to sales. Specific applications modules include budgeting, planning and forecasting, financial consolidation, capital expenditure planning, activity-based costing, zero-based budgeting as well as sales and revenue forecasting. EPM applications revenues represent a major contributor to the Enterprise Resource Planning market as part of our market sizing exercise.
ERP Financial ManagementERP Financial Management software covers finance-specific business processes such as accounts payable, accounts receivable, general ledger, and fixed asset accounting, as well as online functions such as invoicing, factoring, electronic payments and financial reporting. FM applications revenues represent a major contributor to the Enterprise Resource Planning market as part of our market sizing exercise.
ERP Services and Operations ManagementERP Services and Operations Management covers integrated applications suites designed to automate a range of business processes from back-office operations to financial management and from sales order capture to customer information management. Currently, ERP also covers functions not being addressed by other functional markets. Examples include Environment and Health and Safety, Governance, Risk and Compliance, as well as industry-specific applications for 21 verticals.
Human Capital ManagementHuman capital management includes such functions as eRecruiting (applicant tracking), Onboarding (employee profile), Performance Management (assessment, goal management, succession planning), Core HR (personnel administration, benefits, compensation management, payroll), Workforce Management (absence management, activity tracking, scheduling, time and attendance), and eLearning (learning management system).
IT Service ManagementITSM applications are being used to make a growing number of employee self-service functions possible through enterprise service management for an asset, incident and project management. ITSM applications are considered a derivative market with revenue contribution to functional areas such as Project and Portfolio Management and Enterprise Resource Planning.
Product LifeCycle Management and EngineeringProduct Lifecycle Management applications enable key stakeholders including designers, engineers and OEMs to gain and optimize visibility into the entire product lifecycle from idea generation to collaboration and from product data management to iterative development efforts. PLM applications are considered a derivative market with revenue contribution to functional areas such as Project and Portfolio Management, Enterprise Resource Planning and Manufacturing.
Project Portfolio ManagementProject and portfolio management (PPM) applications include those that automate and optimize the initiating, planning/scheduling, allocation, monitoring, and measuring of activities and resources required to complete projects. PPM applications also cover certain aspects of IT service management especially those that involve project portfolio management within the IT domain.
ProcurementProcurement covers applications designed for purchasing material (whether direct or indirect; raw, in process, or finished; as a result of or flowing into a product supply chain-specific business process; or in support of performing a service) and services (business or professional). Other functions include contract management, electronic network, punch-out, sourcing, and supplier rating to optimize the overall supplier relationship management business processes. Procurement applications revenues represent a major contributor to the Enterprise Resource Planning market as part of our market sizing exercise.
Sales Performance ManagementSales Performance Management tracks and automates different incentive compensation programs for salespeople as well as other functions specific to inside, outbound and channel sales activities including territory and quota management, account segmentation and scoring, and deal and quote management. SPM applications revenues represent a major contributor to the Human Capital Management market as part of our market sizing exercise.
Supply Chain ManagementSupply chain management covers Inventory Optimization (Warehouse Management, Replenishment), Transportation and Logistics (Routing, Scheduling, Carrier/Fleet/Fuel Management), Planning (Advanced Planning and Scheduling, Forecasting, Supply Chain Planning through Execution), Distribution Management (Order Orchestration, Management, Global Trade Management), E-Commerce (POS, Store Inventory & Fulfillment, EDI).
Treasury and Risk ManagementTreasury and Risk Management applications cover standalone and/or integrated products that automate business processes to support corporate treasury operations (including the treasuries of financial services enterprises) with the corresponding financial institution functionality and optimize related cash management, deal management, and risk management functions.
*Cash management automation includes both discrete and interlocking treasury processes involving electronic payment authorization, bank relationship management, cash forecasting, and others.
*Deal management automation includes processes for the implementation of trading controls, the creation of new instruments and asset classes, market data interface from manual or third-party sources, and others.
*Risk management automation includes performance analysis, various metrics calculations used in fixed-income portfolio analysis, market-to-market valuations, energy trading and risk management, and compliance with regulations and standards such as European Market Infrastructure Regulation, Financial Accounting Standard, International Financial Reporting Standards, Single European Payments Area, and others.

Exhibit 6b – Definition of Enterprise Applications Components By Vertical Industry

Primary MarketSecondary MarketsDescription
VerticalsAerospace and DefenseAerospace and Defense (Aircraft and parts, defense contractors) – Aviation Maintenance Management, Air Traffic Management applications, Flight operations software, Quality management system, Financials, HR, Procurement
AutomotiveAutomotive (Automotive production, equipment, repair, services) – PLM, CAD, CAM, Dealer Management System, Parts Management, Financials, HR, Procurement
Banking and Financial ServicesBanking and Financial Services (Credit, lending, securities institutions) – Hedge fund administration, Core Banking, Cash, treasury, payment, risk management and supply chain finance solutions, Investment management system, Securities transaction and online trading technology, Mortgage, Loan origination and processing solutions, Teller transaction and loan processing, automated loan decisioning, analytical science analysis, workflow management, and sales and service solutions, Financials, HR, Procurement
CommunicationsCommunications (Telecom services providing point-to-point contact) – Converged billing, Multi-party settlement, OSS, BSS, Financials, HR, Procurement
Construction and Real EstateConstruction and Real Estate (Contracting and building of commercial, public, and residential structures, real estate management) – Bidding, cost estimates, Time Tracking, Homebuilder Software, Quantity Takeoff Software, Property Management, Financials, HR, Procurement
Consumer Packaged GoodsConsumer Packaged Goods (Consumer goods including non-durables, apparel, food and beverage and packaged goods) – Product lifecycle management, Supply Chain Management. eCommerce, Pricing Optimization, Financials, HR, Procurement
DistributionDistribution (Wholesale and distribution of goods to other enterprises) – Supply Chain Management, Transportation Management, Financials, HR, Procurement
EducationEducation (K-12 schools, colleges and universities, technical and vocational, distance learning) – Student Information System, Learning Management, Fund Accounting System, Higher Education Administration, Financials, HR, Procurement
GovernmentGovernment (Federal, state and local government agencies, nonprofit) – Public Safety Software, Grants and performance management, Computer Assisted Dispatch, Jail Management, Courts Management, Tax Collections, Records Management, Financials, HR, Procurement
HealthcareHealthcare (Healthcare providers, hospitals, physicians, clinics, hospices) – Electronic Health Record, Practice Management, Revenue cycle management, Financials, HR, Procurement
InsuranceInsurance (Entities that offer noncompulsory insurance of any kind) – Agency management system, Policy administration solutions, Pensions administration software, Billing and Claims software, Underwriting, Property & Casualty Management, Insurance Broker and Financial Planning Software, Financials, HR, Procurement
Leisure and HospitalityLeisure, Hospitality and Lodging (Gaming, amusement, recreation services, hotels, cruises, lodging facilities) – Property Management, Cash Journaling & Gratuity Automation, Revenue Optimization, Hotel distribution, CRS, Channel management, Inventory Management, Financials, HR, Procurement
Life SciencesLife Sciences (Pharmaceuticals, medical devices and life technologies) – Clinical trial management, Enterprise Risk, Compliance and Quality Management, Incentive compensation, sales performance management, Financials, HR, Procurement
ManufacturingManufacturing (Discrete, high-tech, process manufacturing) – Production Planning, Maintenance Management, Quality Management, CAD/CAM software, Manufacturing ERP, Manufacturing Execution System, Product lifecycle management, Financials, HR, Procurement
MediaMedia and Entertainment (Content distribution, broadcasting, publishing, motion pictures) – Distribution resource management for publishing, content distribution; warehouse management system, supply chain management for publishing and content distribution, Media asset management (MAM); digital media infrastructure; digital asset management (DAM); Dynamic ticket pricing for live events, Broadcast resource management; equipment asset management; broadcast engineering and operations (E&O), Financials, HR, Procurement
Non ProfitNon Profit organizations are not-for-profit entities that direct their funding and revenues to achieve their stated mission. Applications designed for these organizations include donor and grant management, fundraising and accounting, constituent relationship management, as well as a range of back-office, association and event management, and community-building functions
Oil, Gas and ChemicalsOil, Gas and Chemicals (Fuel extraction, petroleum refining, primary derivatives from oil, chemicals and allied products) – Oil and Gas Operations Management, Reserves Management, Capital Planning, and Budgeting, Well Production Software, Financials, HR, Procurement
Professional ServicesProfessional services (Business, accounting, engineering, IT and software, legal services) – Timesheet and billing, Legal Practice Management, Project Management, Project Portfolio Management, Field Service Management Software, Professional Services Automation, Financials, HR, Procurement
RetailRetail (Enterprises involved in the sale of goods, services, general and convenience stores, restaurants) – Multi-channel retail software, Point of Sale system, Store management system, Trade Promotions Management, Fresh food software, Price Optimization, Health and Safety Software, Workplace Risk Management solutions, Retail Execution Management solutions, Financials, HR, Procurement
TransportationTransportation (Operation of means of moving freight and passengers) – Cargo Management, Airport Management System, Scheduling, Intelligent Transportation, Fare Collection, Ferry reservation systems, Fleet management, Financials, HR, Procurement
UtilitiesUtilities (Electricity, water and gas utilities) – Customer care, billing, Smart meter infrastructure, Energy Trading Risk Management, SCADA, Financials, HR, Procurement

Exhibit 7 – Schematic View of Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP) Applications Market and Its Key Functions

Schematic View of ERP Applications Market and Its Key Functions
Schematic View of ERP Applications Market and Its Key Functions, Source: Apps Run The World, April 2016

Exhibit 8 – Definition of Human Capital Management (HCM) Applications

From hire to retire, HCM continuum extends across 22 markets, 21 verticals
From hire to retire, HCM continuum extends across 22 markets, 21 verticals
Core HR and Performance Management
Core HR and Performance ManagementDescription
Core HR and Personnel ManagementCore human resource management system, personnel records, HR master file, accruals, organizational development, org chart visualization
PayrollPayroll processing, tax filing, language support, country-level updates, payslip calculations, automatic deductions and other government requirements for proper disbursement of employee compensation.
Benefits AdministrationBenefits and health administration. Plan and design benefits lifecycle, billing and payment. Carrier solutions are also included for integration purposes.
Pension AdministrationPension and retirement fund(401K) administration as well as software that helps manage profit sharing plan, defined benefit plan, or cash balance plan.
ComplianceCompliance, regulatory updates and reporting including such laws as the Affordable Care Act, Overtime Regulations, Fair Labor Standards Act
Performance and Goal ManagementHR performance management applications are designed to automate the aggregation and delivery of information pertinent to the linking of job roles and the mission and goals of the organization. More specifically, the system allows users to automate the performance review process by using mechanisms such as training and key performance indicators to continuously track and monitor the progress of an individual employee, work team, and division. Some of the key features include Assessment of individual career objectives and organizational skills gaps that impede performance and job advancement. Continuous reviews and establishing milestones. 360-degree evaluation and real-time feedback. Performance appraisal automation. Goal setting and tracking. Employee surveys. Alignment of human assets to corporate objectives. Fast tracks for top performers.
Learning and DevelopmentLearning management systems refer to applications that automate the administration, tracking, and reporting of training events. Other tools may include courseware and other delivery, management, tracking, or integrated solutions whose focus is on the learning environment, including learning content management systems. Career development tools include apps for coaching, mentoring, employee development planning, and diagnosing of development needs.
Succession and Leadership PlanningIdentify and address current and potential talent gaps to create succession management reporting. Develop and maintain a continuous supply of internal talent to fill critical job roles. Improve employee engagement through digital tools to advance career path development opportunities.
Compensation ManagementCompensation management applications are designed to automate the process of providing cash, noncash, variable and nonvariable compensation to employees through advanced modeling, reporting, and built-in interfacing to payroll processing systems. Other key features include seamlessly manage compensation budgets and allocation in a single, shared tool. Streamline pay recommendation workflows and approvals. Support multiple pay and incentive practices. Ensure budget compliance and adherence to compensation guidelines. Quota and territory management. Calculation and distribution of commissions, spiffs, royalties, incentives to employees, and channel and business partners. Compensation analysis using internal and external data for retention risk analysis. Linking salary, commission and incentives — cash and noncash — to business objectives. Payroll and payment engine interfaces. Account payables integration.
Talent Acquisition 
Talent AcquisitionDescription
Applicant TrackingApplicant tracking software automates such functions as management of resumes, applicant information, scoring, workflow, matching, search, interview scheduling, job descriptions, EEOC reporting, job postings and notifications
RecruitingRecruiting applications are designed to automate the recruitment process of salaried and hourly employees through screening and skills assessment, as well as automated selection processes to improve hiring pipeline by identifying talent inside or outside the organization. Other key features include: Manage skills inventories. Create and manage job requisitions. Coordinate team collaboration within hiring processes. Video Interviewing, team building and digital coaching.
Attract and Engage (Marketing)Applications designed to attract and engage candidates and employees. Other tasks automate functions such as candidate relationship management apps, career site technology, social recruiting, employee referrals, branding, video engagement, campus recruiting and internal hiring
Contingent Labor ManagementProcessing of hiring of contingent labor, search, skills matching, assessment, interview scheduling, negotiation of rates, approvals, project milestone payments, project completion tracking, performance ratings
SourcingFacilitate resource planning for staffing firms as well as vendor managed system, allowing for front office integration for employment agencies as well as talent acquisition apps designed for staffing firms.
OnboardingApplications designed to deploy workers to appropriate jobs, projects, or teams for accelerated on-boarding.
Workforce Management
Workforce ManagementDescription
Absence and Leave ManagementAbsence management applications offer automated features to support employee leave management, employer-authorized leave, Short-Term-Disability/Workers’ Comp coordination, federal and state compliance, customized leave correspondence, medical certification processing, insurance premium payment tracking as well as employee self-service capabilities. Leave Management supports compliance activities related to government regulations such as the Family and Medical Leave Act in the United States and other local leave laws in different countries.
Workforce analyticsWorkforce analytics are used to analyze compensation, benefits, and other employee variables. These applications can also be used to analyze and optimize labor allocation for particular projects.
Fatigue ManagementFatigue Management apps help automate key facets of fatigue risk mitigation, enforcing employee work-hour limits and aligning with fitness for duty best practices. Similar apps may act as electronic work diaries for real-time reporting and compliance with transportation laws.
Hardware (Time Clock)Time capture is the hardware platform that provides authentication features for clock-in and clock-out times, meal and rest breaks, as well as timesheet and payroll reporting and compliance.
Workforce SchedulingProducts are designed to Increase forecasting accuracy by factoring in a variety of methods and historical patterns. Create optimal schedules to meet customer demands, while reducing costs and maximizing resources
Task ManagementTask Management offers labor management capabilities such as task-based and project-based activity tracking as well as measurement and reporting functions against performance standards like engineered labor standards, team standards and reflective standards.
Time and AttendanceTime and Attendance applications are designed to automate employee time tracking in different locations, help reduce overtime expenses, improve payroll accuracy, eliminate pay errors and adjustments, along with the need to simplify and optimize administrative tasks and complex rate calculations by making available accurate and current labor data and full audit trail of payroll data.

Apps Run The World Taxonomy and all exhibits and definitions are copyrighted, 2010-2018